Dyslexia is a learning disorder that manifests itself as adifficulty with reading, spelling and in some cases mathematics.It is separate and distinct from reading difficulties resulting from othercauses, such as a non-neurological deficiency with vision or hearing, or frompoor or inadequate reading instruction.
Dyslexia is thought to be the result of a neurological defect/difference,and though not an intellectual disability, it is variously considered alearning disability, a language disability, and a reading disability, amongothers. Dyslexia is diagnosed in people of all levels of intelligence (normalto above).
Signs and symptoms
Dyslexia symptoms vary according to the severity of the disorder as well asthe age of the individual.
Pre-school age children
It is difficult to obtain a certain diagnosis of dyslexia before a childbegins school, but many dyslexic individuals have a history of difficultiesthat began well before kindergarten. Children who exhibit these symptoms have ahigher risk of being diagnosed as dyslexic than other children. Some of thesesymptoms are:
- Learns new words slowly
- Has difficulty rhyming words, as in nursery rhymes
- Low letter knowledge
- Letter reversal, ex: e b f p (normal)
Early primary school-age children
- Difficulty learning the alphabet or in order.
- Difficulty with associating sounds with the letters that represent them (sound-symbol correspondence)
- Difficulty identifying or generating rhyming words, or counting syllables in words (phonological awareness)
- Difficulty segmenting words into individual sounds, or blending sounds to make words (phonemic awareness)
- Difficulty with word retrieval or naming problems.
- Difficulty learning to decode words.
- Difficulty distinguishing between similar sounds in words; mixing up sounds in multisyllable words (auditory discrimination) (for example, "aminal" for animal, "bisghetti" for spaghetti)
Older primary school children
- Slow or inaccurate reading, although these individuals can read to an extent.
- Very poor spelling
- Difficulty reading out loud, reads word in the wrong order, skips words and sometimes says a word similar to another word
- Difficulty associating individual words with their correct meanings
- Difficulty with time keeping and concept of time, when doing certain task
- Difficulty with organization skills
- Due to fear of speaking incorrectly, some children become withdrawn and shy or become bullies out of their inability to understand the social cues in their environment
- Difficulty comprehending rapid instructions, following more than one command at a time or remembering the sequence of things
- Children with dyslexia may fail to see (and occasionally to hear) similarities and differences in letters and words, may not recognize the spacing that organizes letters into separate words, and may be unable to sound out the pronunciation of an unfamiliar word.
One major misconceptions of dyslexia is writing words backwards or lettersmove when reading. This is a very small population of dyslexics.Teachers/instructors can better identify dyslexic students when their writingdoesn't seem to match their level of intelligence from prior observations.
Sentences often containing asimilar-looking, but unrelated word in place of the one intended (what/want,say/saw, help/held, run/fun, fell/fall, to/too, etc.)