Vertigo is a type of dizziness,where there is a feeling of motion when one is stationary. The symptoms are dueto a dysfunction of the vestibular system in the inner ear. It is oftenassociated with nauseaand vomitingas well as difficulties standing or walking.
The most common causes are benign paroxysmal positionalvertigo and vestibular migraine while less common causesinclude Meniere's disease and vestibular neuritis.
Vertigo is a feeling of motion when one is stationary.
Vertigo is classified into either peripheral or central depending on thelocation of the dysfunction of the vestibular pathway.
Vertigo caused by problems with the inner earor vestibular system is called"peripheral", "otologic" or "vestibular". Themost common cause is benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) but other causesinclude Meniere's disease, superior canal dehiscence syndrome,labyrinthitisand visual vertigo. Any cause of inflammation such as common cold,influenza,and bacterial infections may cause transient vertigo if they involve the innerear, as may chemical insults (e.g., aminoglycosides)or physical trauma (e.g., skull fractures). Motionsickness is sometimes classified as a cause of peripheral vertigo.
If vertigo arises from the balance centers of the brain, it is usuallymilder, and has accompanying neurologic deficits, such as slurred speech, double visionor pathologic nystagmus. Brain pathology cancause a sensation of disequilibrium which is an off-balance sensation.
A number of conditions that involve the central nervous system may lead to vertigoincluding:migraineheadaches, lateral medullary syndrome, multiple sclerosis.
Signs and symptoms
Vertigo is a sensation of spinning while stationary. It is commonlyassociated with vomitingor nausea, unsteadiness,and excessive perspiration. Many people (80%) experience recurrentepisodes that impair their quality of life.
Blurredvision, difficulty speaking, a lowered level of consciousness,and hearing loss may also occur. Central nervous system disorders may lead topermanent symptoms.