Diabetes mellitus type 1 (Type 1 diabetes, IDDM, orjuvenile diabetes) is a form of diabetesmellitus that results from autoimmunedestruction of insulin-producingbeta cellsof the pancreas.The subsequent lack of insulin leads to increased blood and urine glucose. Theclassical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia(increased thirst), polyphagia (increased hunger), and weight loss
Type 1 diabetes is fatal unless treated withinsulin. Injection is the most common method of administeringinsulin; insulin pumps and inhaledinsulin has been available at various times.
There is no preventive measure against developing type 1 diabetes.Most people who develop type 1 are otherwise healthy. Although the causeof type 1 diabetes is still not fully understood it is believed to be ofimmunological origin. Type 1 can be distinguished from type 2 diabetes via a C-peptideassay, which measures endogenous insulin production.
Type 1 treatment must be continued indefinitely in all cases. Treatmentneed not significantly impair normal activities, if sufficient patienttraining, awareness, appropriate care, discipline in testing and dosing ofinsulin is taken. However, treatment is burdensome for many people.Complications may be associated with both low bloodsugar and high blood sugar. Low blood sugar may lead to seizures orepisodes of unconsciousness and requires emergency treatment. High blood sugarmay lead to increased tiredness and can also result in long term damage toother organs such as eyes and joints.